Posts Tagged ‘c++

28
Aug
14

Interactive menus for UnitC++

UnitC++ has gone to version 1.1.0. The new feature is the addition of an interactive menu system. You run your tests declared using the TEST macro with the following code.

/=============================================================================
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  return UnitCpp::TestRegister::test_register().run_tests_interactive(
    argc,
    argv
  );
}

This will produce a menu which looks something like this;

================================================================================
0) All tests.

================================================================================
1) Maths
  2) "Maths:sqrt_results"
  3) "Maths:is_square"
  4) "Maths:sqrt_precondition"

================================================================================
5) MyString
  6) "MyString:length_test"
  7) "MyString:validity_test"

The numbers which you run the tests with can be input on the command line also, so utest.exe 0 will always run all of the tests.

See more at my sourceforge page

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12
Aug
14

UnitC++ on SourceForge

My latest project, UnitC++ , is now live on SourceForge. Check it out here

07
Aug
14

Humour in the C++ standard

It’s nice to see that the C++ standard, while mostly dry, has a little humour in it. There is a limerick in section 14.7.3, 7. It goes like this;

When writing a specialization,
be careful about its location;
or to make it compile will be such a trial
as to kindle its self-immolation.

And according to Mostly Buggy in version C++0x FCD there was an amusing footnote in Section 29 Atomic operations library

29.1 General [atomics.general]
1 This Clause describes components for fine-grained atomic access. This access is provided via operations on atomic objects.341
[…]
341) Atomic objects are neither active nor radioactive.

But sadly in my copy (ISO IEC 14882) this was not included. It must have been taken out before the official standard was released.

There are according to Michael Wong two limericks in the standard, but I couldn’t find the second one (in the document, or on the internet).

29
Jul
14

UnitC++

This post is an introduction to a library I have written, UnitC++.

UnitC++ is a modern, light weight, header-only c++ library for making unit testing easy. The intention of this library is to make it really easy to test c++ code in a portable way.

 

Continue reading ‘UnitC++’

03
Mar
14

Functional Data Structures in C++: Lists

Great article by Bartosz Milewski. I’m always interested in applying different paradigms to C++. Here is my attempt at this.

  Bartosz Milewski's Programming Cafe

“Data structures in functional languages are immutable.”

What?! How can you write programs if you can’t mutate data? To an imperative programmer this sounds like anathema. “Are you telling me that I can’t change a value stored in a vector, delete a node in a tree, or push an element on a stack?” Well, yes and no. It’s all a matter of interpretation. When you give me a list and I give you back the same list with one more element, have I modified it or have I constructed a brand new list with the same elements plus one more?

Why would you care? Actually, you might care if you are still holding on to your original list. Has that list changed? In a functional language, the original data structure will remain unmodified! The version from before the modification persists — hence such data structures are called persistent (it has…

View original post 4,199 more words

08
Oct
13

C++ Digraphs

This is not as you might think, an article about implementing directed graphs in C++. The digraphs I am writing about are sequences of characters which act as a stand in for other characters. Digraphs and trigraphs exist in many languages, but I will be focusing on C++. The difference between digraphs and trigraphs is simple the number of characters, a digraph is 2 characters and a trigraph is 3 characters.

Digraphs are part of the language because in the past special characters were hard to input. This was generally because they were not on the keyboard, but in a few cases, they were not even in the code page!

So what use is this now, when modern keyboards have all the symbols we could want and we can use different encodings in source files?

Here is a screenshot of the C++ standard where it defines the allowed digraphs.

Digraphs in C++ Standard

C++ standard digraphs

The first column are backwards compatible digraphs for C. The next two columns are rather interesting.

For example. If you write the word or in a C++ source file, the compiler will replace that with ||. This means that the following code compiles and works.

//=============================================================================
int main() {
  bool a = false;
  bool b = true;
  std::cout << "a or b == " << (a or b) << std::endl;
  return 0;
}

Not only will this work for built in types, this works for user defined operators too. This is because the compiler simply substitutes the symbols.

Here is an example class and calling code which uses all the C++ digraphs.

Class

This is just a stub class which defines a lot of operators which do nothing.

//=============================================================================
class Example {
public:

  //===========================================================================
  // logic operators
  bool operator&&(const Example& t) {
    return true;
  }
  
  bool operator||(const Example& t) {
    return true;
  }
  
  bool operator!() {
    return true;
  }
  
  //===========================================================================
  // bitwise operators
  bool operator&(const Example& t) {
    return true;
  }
  
  bool operator|(const Example& t) {
    return true;
  }
  
  bool operator^(const Example& t) {
    return true;
  }
  
  bool operator~() {
    return true;
  }
  
  //===========================================================================
  // logic equals operators
  Example operator&=(const Example& t) {
    return t;
  }
  
  Example operator|=(const Example& t) {
    return t;
  }
  
  Example operator^=(const Example& t) {
    return t;
  }
  
  Example operator!=(const Example& t) {
    return t;
  }
  
};

Calling Code

//=============================================================================
int main() {
  bool a = true;
  bool b = true;
  if (a and b) {
    cout << "\"and\" is an operator." << endl;
  }
  if (false or b) {
    cout << "\"or\" is also an operator." << endl;
  }
  if (not false) {
    cout << "\"not\" is also an operator." << endl;
  }

  Example t_1, t_2;
  if (t_1 and t_2) {
    cout << "\"and\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (t_1 or t_2) {
    cout << "\"or\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (not t_1) {
    cout << "\"and\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (t_1 bitand t_2) {
    cout << "\"bitand\" also works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (t_1 bitor t_2) {
    cout << "\"bitor\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (compl t_1) {
    cout << "\"compl\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  if (t_1 xor t_2) {
    cout << "\"xor\" even works for classes" << endl;
  }
  
  t_1 and_eq t_2;
  cout << "\"and_eq\" even works for classes" << endl;
  
  t_1 or_eq t_2;
  cout << "\"or_eq\" even works for classes" << endl;
  
  t_1 xor_eq t_2;
  cout << "\"xor_eq\" even works for classes" << endl;

  return 0;
}

This gives the output;

"and" is an operator.
"or" is also an operator.
"not" is also an operator.
"and" even works for classes
"or" even works for classes
"and" even works for classes
"bitand" also works for classes
"bitor" even works for classes
"compl" even works for classes
"xor" even works for classes
"and_eq" even works for classes
"or_eq" even works for classes
"xor_eq" even works for classes

This file can be found here.

This is an interesting feature, but is it useful?

I think it is, I think that the code;

if (not fail and ok) {
  // ...
}

Is more readable than;

if (!fail && ok) {
  // ...
}

However just because these are defined in the standard does not mean they can be used. These are largely considered a legacy part of the standard and there is limited support for it.

In particular Microsoft’s C++ compiler will not compile it. Both clang and g++ will compile it however, so if you are compiling using either of these you can use this nice feature.

Thanks for reading.

08
Apr
13

Comparisons in C++

This is about the comparison operators in C++ and making them easy to implement. There are 6 comparison operators in C++; ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. If you want to be able to apply all of these to a class, and you have the right type of order, you only need to implement one function which will determines them all. Incidentally this is called a total order, but I won’t go into what that means here.

The tl;dr of this is look at this repository and use a class from there to easily implement custom comparison operators.

This idea is to map the order onto the real numbers (doubles). So you have a function which takes two instances of a class and returns a double. If this function returns a negative number then the first instance is less than the second, if it returns 0 they are equal and if it returns a positive number then the first instance is greater than the second.

This will be easier to see with an example, so here is a class which is just data storage for an int.

Continue reading ‘Comparisons in C++’